Dr Lucy Kamau


Title/Qualifications:
BVM, MSc, Ph.D
Department/Unit/Section: Animal Sciences
Contact Address: P.O Box 43844 (00100) Nairobi
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Position: Senior Lecturer and Chairperson, Department of Animal Sciences
Area of Specialization: Parasitology, Molecular Biology, Vaccinology

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Publications

  • Collins Ngetich, Lucy Kamau, Jemimah Simbauni, Charles Mwendia, Milton Owido, Irene Kiio, Oswald Matika, Sarah Foster, Michael Birkett, Appolinaire Djikeng, Kellie Anne Watson, Naftaly Githaka (2023). The potential for use of haematological and anti-IgE humoral responses as phenotypic markers for tick resistance in cattle. Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Diseases 5 (2024) 100159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpvbd.2023.100159
  • Magara Jeremiah, Lucy Kamau, Grace Nyambati, Hastings Ozwara (2023). Rubia cordifolia L. Crude Aerial Part Extracts Show a High Potential as Antimalarials against Chloroquine Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Strains in vitro. Pharmacognosy. Res., 2023, 15(2):288-296. Original Article https://www.phcogres.com/article/2023/15/2/105530pres152031
  • James Kinoti Njue , Margaret Muturi,Lucy Kamau, and Raphael Lwembe (2022). Primary and Triage Cervical Screening Diagnostic Value of Methods for the Detection of Cervical Dysplasia. BioMed Research International Volume 2022, Article ID 1930102, 10 pages. doi: 10.1155/2022/1930102. eCollection 2022. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36164451/
  • Caroline Makena Lepore, Lucy Kamau, Esther Kanduma (2022). Molecular Prevalence of Entamoeba Species among Diarrheal Patients in Eastern Kenya European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology www.ejbio.org. Vol 3 | Issue 1 (pg. 39-46) January
  • Ruth Mogendi, Lucy Kamau and Ngethe Muhoho (2022). Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Their Transmission Risk Factors among Inmates of Naivasha and Kisii Prisons in Kenya. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health 43(5): 1-7, 2022; Article no.IJTDH.84435 ISSN: 2278–1005, NLM ID: 101632866. http://journaleprints.uk/id/eprint/502/1/1228-Article%20Text-2315-1-10-20221012.pdf
  • Ednah N. Ototo, Joseph O. Ogutu, Andrew Githeko, Mohammed Y. Said, Lucy Kamau, Didacus Namanya,  Stella Simiyu, Stephen Mutimb. (2021). Forecasting the Potential Effects of Climate Change on Malaria in the Lake Victoria Basin Using Regionalized Climate Projections. Acta Parasitologica. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11686-022-00588-4
  • James Kinoti Njue1, Margaret W. Muturi, Lucy Kamau, Joseph Muriuki and Raphael Lwembe (2021). Human Papillomavirus Infection: Molecular Epidemiology and Acceptability of Screening and Vaccination among Women in Eastern Kenya Counties. African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 34, Issue No. 3, May – June 2021: 278-293. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajhs/article/view/212304
  • James Kinoti Njue, Margaret Muturi, Lucy Kamau, and Raphael Lwembe (2021). Human Papillomavirus Types Associated with Cervical Dysplasia among HIV- and Non-HIV-Infected Women Attending Reproductive Health Clinics in Eastern Kenya. BioMed Research International Volume 2021, Article ID 2250690, 10 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2250690  
  • Joyce Nyirongo, Lucy Kamau, Jemimah Simbauni, Victor Mwangi, Esther Kagasi, Faith Onditi and Hastings Ozwara (2020). Drug Recovery: Effect of Astemizole – Methylene Blue Combination Therapy against Plasmodium Strains in vitro.  South Asian Journal of Parasitology 4(3): 9-17, 2020; Article no.SAJP.60063. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344238195
  • Mung’ang’a EM., Kamau LM. and Maingi JM. (2020). Amoebiasis levels in relation to sanitation and personal hygiene among patients attending Kauwi and Muthale hospitals in Kitui County, Kenya. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical research Vol.6(6), 67-70 ISSN 2455-3301. https://www.wjpmr.com/download/article/68052020/1590826391.pdf
  • Samuel Kamonge, Lucy Kamau and Ngethe Muhoho (2020). Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Transmission Risk Factors in Primary School Children in Mbeere North Sub-County,Embu County, Kenya. International Journal of Pathogen Research 4(3): 1-7, Article no. IJPR.57916 ISSN: 2582-3876. https://www.academia.edu/45267928/
  • Ruth Munene, Lucy Kamau and Muhoho Ng’ethe 2019. Schistosoma mansoni Infections occurring in school going children in a non-endemic area as a result of associated activities in a neighboring endemic area. Applied Science and Innovative Research 3(1), 57-65. http://www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/asir/article/view/1813/1969
  • Robert Omondi, Lucy Kamau (2018). Ownership and Utilization of Insecticide Treated Nets among Primary School Children Following Universal Distribution of Insecticide Treated Nets in Kasipul, Homa-Bay County, Kenya. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). Volume 40, No 1, pp 26-36. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper
  • Robert Omondi, Lucy Kamau (2018). Reduced Plasmodium Infection in Primary School Children Following Universal Distribution of Insecticide Treated Bed Nets in Kasipul, Homa-Bay County, Kenya. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Volume 38, No 1, pp 1-9 ISSN 2307-4531.  https://www.gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/8660 
  • Purity Nguhiu, Lucy Kamau, Kelvin Kinyua and Paul Matonge  (2017). Seroprevalence of Porcine Cysticercosis and Associated Risk Factors in Pigs Slaughtered in Abattoirs in Thika, Kiambu County, Kenya. Journal of Life Sciences 11 :321-326 doi: 10.17265/1934-7391/2017.07.002. Journal of Life Sciences 11 (2017) 321-326 doi: 10.17265/1934-7391/2017.07.002 Corpus ID: 56387276 https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b2c8/375f94e9c93ca0b3c871f21a4237bb23c33b.pdf?_gl=1*1cyz9vo*_ga*MjQ5ODc3ODE1LjE2NDMxMTc3NzE.*_ga_H7P4ZT52H5*MTY3ODg5ODA0OC4xLjEuMTY3ODg5OTIwNS4wLjAuMA..
  • Chebet Too, Kamau Lucy, Syprine Otieno (2017). Prevalence of Amoebiasis among Patients Attending Longisa County Hospital, Bomet County, Kenya. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) ISSN 2307-4531: Vol 36 (8) pg 53-61 https://www.gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/8364
  • Janeffer N. Njuguna, Michael M. Gicheru, Lucy M. Kamau and Peter M. Mbatha (2017). Incidence and knowledge of bovine brucellosis in Kahuro district, Murang’a County, Kenya. Tropical Animal Health Production 49(5):1035–1040 DOI 10.1007/s11250-017-1296-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28466240/
  • Evalyne Wambui Kanyina, Lucy Kamau M. and Margaret Muturi (2017). Cervical precancerous changes and selected cervical microbial infections, Kiambu County, Kenya, 2014.  A cross sectional study. BMC Infectious Diseases 17(1):647 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2747-4 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28946854/
  • Ototo EN, Zhou G, Kamau L, Mbugi JP, Wanjala CL, Machani M, Atieli H, Githeko AK, Yan G  (2017). Age-specific Plasmodium parasite profile in pre and post ITN intervention period at a highland site in western Kenya. Malaria Journal. 16(1):466. doi: 10.1186/s12936-017-2119. https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12936-017-2119-y
  • Collince J. Omondi, Daniel Onguru, Lucy Kamau, Mark Nanyingi, George Ong’amo and Benson Estambale (2017). Perennial transmission of malaria in the low altitude areas of Baringo County, Kenya. Malaria Journal 17;16(1):257.doi: 10.1186/s12936-017-1904-y. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28623926/
  • Collince Jared Omondi, Lucy Muthoni Kamau, Humphrey Kariuki Njaanake, Douglas Anyona, Daniel Onguru, Benson Estambale (2017). Evaluation of Three Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits in the Diagnosis of Plasmodium Species Infections among Primary School Children in Baringo County, Kenya. Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics. 7(1): 31-44. https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=74916
  • Menza C. Nelson, Margaret Muturi, Lucy Kamau M. (2017). Occurrence of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus Species in Various Varieties of Peanuts Produced in Western Kenya. DOI: 10.20944/preprints201701.0044.v1
  • Kamau L.M., Skilton R.A., Githaka N, Kiara H., Kabiru E., Shah T., Musoke A., Bishop R.P. (2016). Extensive polymorphism of Ra86 genes in field populations of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus from Kenya. Ticks Tick Borne Diseases. Vol 7 Issue 5, 772-781 doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.03.011. Epub 2016 Mar 17. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27051976/
  • Esther G. Kanduma, Joram M. Mwacharo, Naftaly W. Githaka, Peter W. Kinyanjui, Joyce N. Njuguna, Lucy M. Kamau, Edward Kariuki, Stephen Mwaura, Robert A. Skilton and Richard P. Bishop (2016). Analyses of mitochondrial genes reveal two sympatric but genetically divergent lineages of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Kenya. Parasites & Vectors 9:353 https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-016-1631-1
  • Nelson C. Menza, Muturi W. Margaret, Kamau M. Lucy (2016). Oil Contents and Aflatoxin Levels in Peanuts Varieties Produced in Busia and Kisii Central Districts, Kenya. Tropical Medicine and Surgery 4:1  February 2016. Tropical Medicine & Surgery 4(1):204. DOI: 10.4172/2329-9088.1000204 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/296443763_
  • Nelson C. Menza, Muturi W. Margaret, Kamau M. Lucy (2015). Incidence, Types and Levels of Aflatoxin in Different Peanuts Varieties in Busia and Kisii Central Districts, Kenya. Conference PaperOpen Journal of Medical Microbiology > Vol.5 No.4, December 2015 https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=61705
  • Githaka, N., Konnai, S., Bishop, R., Odongo, D., Lekolool, I., Kariuki, E., Gakuya, F., Kamau, L., Isezaki, M., Murata, S., Ohashi, K. (2014). Identification and sequence characterization of novel Theileria genotypes from the waterbuck (Kobus defassa) in a Theileria parva-endemic area in Kenya., Veterinary Parasitology (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.056
  • Naftaly Githaka, Satoru Konnai, Richard Bishop, David Odongo, Isaac Lekolool, Edward Kariuki, Francis Gakuya, Lucy Kamau, Masayoshi Isezaki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi. (2014). Identification and sequence characterization of novel Theileria genotypes from the waterbuck (Kobus defassa in a Theileria parva endemic area in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology 2014
  • Orucho Vincent Obino, Lucy Kamau, Michael Gicheru (2013). Infections of Anopheles Gambiae Mosquitoes with Plasmodium Oocysts and its Effects on Highland Malaria in Kisii Town and its Surroundings.  American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease, 2013, Vol. 2, No. 1, 13-18
  • Matonge P.M., Muturi M and Kamau Lucy M (2013). Persistence of Schistosoma haematobium and Geohelminths infections in residents of two villages in Msambweni District of Coat Province, Kenya. American Journal of Epidemiology and infectious disease. 1 (4) 41-46.
  • Lucy M. Kamau, Harry W. Wright, Alasdair J. Nisbet, Alan S. Bowman (2013). Development of an RNA-interference procedure for gene knockdown in the poultry red mite, Dermanysus gallinae: Studies on Histamine Releasing Factor and Cathepsin-D. African Journal of Biotechnology 12(12) 1350-1356.
  • Maina T.S.N., Kamau L., Kabiru E.W., Ogata B.R., Shitandi A (2013). Evaluation of bacteriological quality of aircraft food at the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya. Science Research 2013: (1): 1-8
  • L. Kamau, R.A. Skilton, D.O Odongo, S. Mwaura, N. Githaka, E. Kanduma, M. Obura, E. Kabiru, A. Orago, A. Musoke and R.P Bishop (2011). Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida). Insect Molecular Biology 2011 20 (1) 105-114. PMID: 20854482. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2010.01043.x
  • David O. Odongo, Lucy Kamau, Robert Skilton , Stephen  Mwaura , Cordula Nitsch, Evans Taracha , Antony  Musoke , Claudia Daubenberger, Richard Bishop (2007). Vaccination of cattle with TickGARD induces cross-reactive antibodies binding to conserved linear peptides of Bm86 homologues in Boophilus decoloratus.  Vaccine Vol. 25 (2007); 1287-1296. PMID: 17070625. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.09.085
  • Lucy Muthoni Kamau (2006); Isolation, recombinant expression and Characterization of polymorphism in the Bm86 vaccine antigen homologues from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. PhD Thesis, Kenyatta University.
  • Lucy Muthoni Kamau (1992); Survey of Cobalt- related vitamin B12 deficiency in goats in small farming communities in some regions of the Kenyan Rift valley. MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.

International Conference Papers/ Visiting Scientist and Seminar presentations.

  • Combination vaccines targeting iron metabolism and mid-gut proteins in Rhipicehalus appendiculatus provides highly effective potential vaccine against tick infestation. International Veterinary Vaccinology Network (IVVN) Conference on 26th to 27th March 2018 at Ole Sereni Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Characterization of a novel secretory-type iron transporting protein, Ferritin 2 from Rhipicephalus  appendiculatus and evaluation as an anti-tick vaccine antigen. Oral presentation paper at the 9th Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition held at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete. 3rd to 5th September 2014:
  • Recombinant expression and generation of anti-tick vaccines from a novel secretory type iron-transporting protein, Ferritin 2 from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Joint 8th International Ticks and Tick-borne pathogens (TTP-8) Conference and 12th Biennial Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine (STVM) Conference. August 24-30th 2014 held at Southern Sun Hotel, Cape Town South Africa.
  • Lucy M. Kamau, Harry W. Wright, Alasdair J. Nisbet and Alan S. Bowman (2010). RNA interference and gene knockdown in the Poultry red mite, Dermanysus gallinae: studies on histamine-releasing factor and Cathepsin D. Ist East African Regional Postgraduate Conference of Pure and Applied Sciences. Held at Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.- August 2010
  • International Biomedical Research Conference, Hosted by Institute of Primate Research and National museums of Kenya. Held at Kenya Institute of Education; Theme of Conference: Translating non-human primate studies into clinical benefits for human.- 6th- 8th July 2010
  • Lucy M. Kamau, Harry W. Wright, Alasdair J. Nisbet and Alan S. Bowman (2010). Developing a method for RNA interference and gene knockdown in the Poultry red mite, Dermanysus gallinae: studies on histamine-releasing factor and Cathepsin D. British Society for Parasitology Spring Conference and Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis Seminar. Cardiff University, Wales, UK- 29th March- 1st April 2010.
  • A concealed gut potential vaccine antigen from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus undergoes positive selection. Poster presentation at the International conference on Bioinformatics, International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, (I.C.I.P.E.), Nairobi, Kenya.- 30th May – 2nd June 2007.
  • Isolation, recombinant expression and characterization of polymorphism in the Bm86 vaccine antigen homologues from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida). Oral presentation as a Visiting Scientist: Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. - April- May 2006
  • Genetic Polymorphism and Positive Selection in a ‘concealed’ gut potential vaccine antigen from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. 8th Annual Conference on vaccine Research, Venue: Marriott Inner Harbor Hotel, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A- 9th -11th May 2005
  • Anti-tick vaccines: Characterization and recombinant expression of Bm86 homologues in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida). Oral presentation as a Visiting Scientist, Tick Research laboratory, University of Connecticut Medical Center, USA. Contact Person:  Dr. Stephen Wikel and Dr. Bronwen Lambson- 3rd May 2005
  • A potential vaccine candidate antigen from the gut of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida). Poster presentation at the international conference on genetics and genomics of disease pathogens: Theme of conference: A time to heal- April 2005’; Venue: Windsor Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya      
  • Isolation and characterization of genes encoding candidate vaccine antigens in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus.
  • Poster Presentation at the Biology of Disease Vectors Summer Conference, Colorado state University, Colorado, U.S.A.- 16th -30th June 2002

Participation in International and Local Conferences and Workshops

  • The 7th Africa Animal Welfare Conference (AAWC) -Action 2023. Conference dates: 25th - 27th September, 2023. Held Physically in Sainte Famille Hotel, Kigali – Rwanda and Virtually through a Zoom platform ( I attended through the virtual platform via Zoom).
  • The 6th Africa Animal Welfare Conference - Action 2022. Conference theme: Animals, People and the Environment in a rapidly changing 21st Century. Held Physically in Travel Lodge Hotel, Gaborone, Botswana, and virtually via Zoom platform on October 31st to 2nd November, 2022.
  • Kenya Women Veterinary Association Continuous Professional Development -17th -18th November, 2022
  • Organized through partnership between Kenyatta University Kitui Campus and Caritas Kitui, at Mwingi, Kitui County. Oral presentation: Pain detection and Management in Animals.
  • DAAD Alumni Training Workshop on Climate Change Research In East Africa. Held at the MAZINGIRA CENTER, International Livestock Research Instititute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya, on 3rd to 5th November 2021.
  • The 4th Africa Animal Welfare Conference - Action 2020. Conference theme: Animal Welfare and Environment conservation for sustainable development in Africa: Enhancing Nature-based Solutions. Held virtually via Zoom platform on September 7th to 10th 2020.
  • Kenya Women Veterinary Association Continuous Professional Development - 15th March 2019
  • Workshop Theme: Animal Welfare. Venue: Smith Hotel, in Kiserian, Nairobi.
  • Kenya Veterinary Association Continuous Professional Development - 6th to 7th December, 2018
  • Workshop Theme: Optimizing Livestock Productivity through good farming Practices. Venue: Agricultural Information Centre, KALRO, Nairobi.
  • Kenya Veterinary Association Continuous Professional Development - 16th to 17th March 2017
  • Workshop Theme: Animal Welfare and Productivity, held at, the National Agricultural Research Laboratories (NARL), Nairobi.
  • First Kenyatta University Mathematics modelling workshop; 17th to 21st June 2013 at Kenyatta University Conference Center.- June 2013
  • Facilitator, Bio safety Awareness for Kenyatta University staff, held in Kenyatta University Conference Centre. August 2012   

Research Funding, Collaborations, Networks and Professional Consultancy

  • German Research Foundation (DFG) September, 2023 to date: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft or German Research Fund (DFG) grant for initiating an international research collaboration between Kenyatta University and Scientists from four institutions in Germany and four in Africa: within the African-German Scientific Exchange for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture call of 2022.
  • Project Title: PLAN4BEE: Monitoring agro-ecosystems of sub-Saharan Africa: Pesticides and land use as stressors for plants, bees and pollination interactions.
  • Four Germany institutions partners: The Julius Kühn Institute, Braunschweig, the University of Potsdam, the University of Hohenheim and the four institutions African University Peleforo Gon Coulibaly of Korhogo, Korhogo, in Ivory Coast, National University of Sciences, Technologies, Engineering and Mathematics (UNSTIM), in Benin. University of Ngaoundere in Cameroon and Kenyatta University in Kenya. "African-German Scientific Exchange: Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture", 2023.
  • 2021 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) mini-grant of $10,000: Kenyatta University Chemistry department, and Department of Animal Sciences (Co-PI), School of Agriculture and Enterprise Development, Kitui Campus. Research project title: “Development of a visual detection microarray based method for the detection of multiple Aflatoxin producing Aspergillus species.” This was part of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) program to increase partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER).
  • National research Fund (NRF) 2017 grants: Project Title: Development and validation of a rapid lateral flow test (LFT) for detection of Theileria parva, Erlichia ruminatum and Babesia infections in cattle.
  • Grant value KSH 10,000,000- collaborators: University of Nairobi (PI) and ILRI (Beca hub), Nairobi and Kenyatta University.
  • Welcome Trust International Engagement Awards (implemented 2015-2016): Project Title: Catalyzing the uptake and application of research output by small-scale rural farmers in Kenya. Grant number 106486/Z/14/Z; Amount: KSH KES 2,467,900. Project partners: ILRI Tick Laboratory (PI), Kenyatta university and University of Nairobi.
  • NACOSTI WOMEN SCIENTIST GRANT January 2013 to 2018: Cloning and recombinant expression of ferritin2 proteins from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and evaluation for vaccine potential in rabbits and cattle. Project partners: Kenyatta university (PI), ILRI Tick Laboratory, and University of Nairobi.
  • German Academic exchange Service, (DAAD) postdoctoral research fellowship, August 2012- January 2013. Research on Ferritin proteins and iron metabolism in ticks.
  • Israel- Kenya collaboration scholarship for Training on local Strategic development; Project title: Lake Victoria- training on Local Strategic Development.: At Weitz Center for Development studies, the University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.  28th August- 7th September 2011
  • Commonwealth Academic Scholarship Commission in the UK to undertake research at the University of Aberdeen, School of Biological Sciences, in the UK. Focus on Functional genomics research project title: RNAi and gene knock-down in the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae; focus on Cathepsin D and Histamine Releasing Factor. October 2009- March 2010.
  • Junior Research Fellowship awarded by Department of Production Ecology, Wageningen University graduate School, in the Netherlands in collaboration with the International Livestock Research Institute, (ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya and Kenyatta University to conduct research on Baculovirus–Insect cell expression of eukaryotic genes; focusing on recombinant expression, purification of Ra86 antigen for use in trial vaccination in rabbits. April- May 2007
  • German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in-country PhD Scholarship to carry PhD research project title; Isolation, recombinant expression and Characterization of polymorphism in the Bm86 vaccine antigen homologues from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. PhD Thesis, Kenyatta University, 2006. Collaborators: Functional Genomics project at International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi Kenya. and Kenyatta University). January 2000 to 2005.
  • Fellowship by a collaboration between Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, I.C.I.P.E. and Kenyatta University for Training in research techniques in Tropical Insects. Entomology Course at International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (I.C.I.P.E.), Kenya. 1999.
  • Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) Scolarship to pursues MSC (Comparative Mammalian Physiology) project title: Survey of Cobalt related Vitamin B12 deficiency in goats in small scale-farming communities in regions of the Kenyan Rift Valley. University of Nairobi, Kenya. 1989- 1991.